At 4 years a child walks or runs alone up and down stairs, one foot to step. Navigates self-locomotion skilfully, turning sharp corners, running pushing and pulling. Climbs ladders and trees. Can stand, walk, run and tiptoe. Sits with Knees crossed. Shows increasing skill in ball games throwing, catching, bouncing and kicking. Can pick and replace small items for example pin, threads. Can build a tower of blocks 10 or more cubes high. Can hold and uses pencil with good control in adult fashion. Starts to name drawings before production.
At 4 years general behaviour more independent ad strongly self willed. Inclined to verbal impertinence with adults and quarrelling with playmates when wishes crossed. Shows sense of humour in talk and activities. Needs companionship with other children with whom alternately co-operative. Shows concern for younger siblings. Understands sharing and taking turns.
Children at 4 usually starts school this means that they will be making new friendships and listening to people who are not their parents and close family members. Even young children may have problems with stress even at the age of 4.
At 4 years speech grammatically correct and completely intelligible. Shows only a few infantile phonetic substances usually of r-l-w-y group or p-th-f-s sound group. Can give full name and address. Asks more questions like “why?” “When?” “How”. Listens and tells long stories. Counts verbal up to 20 or more. Knows and enjoys jokes and verbal incongruities. Knows several nursery rhymes, which can be sung correctly.
At the age of 5 years these are the Social, Emotional, Physical and Intellectual Development:
At 5 years can pick up and replaces minute objects when each eye is covered separately. Threads large needles alone. Walks easily on narrow line. Runs on toes lightly. Active and skilfully climbing, sliding playing on swings. Skips on alternate feet. Can stand on one foot for 10 seconds. Can hop two or three yards forwards on each foot separately. Can bend and touch toes without flexing knees. Grows taller gets rid of “puppy fat”.
At 5 years has a more sensible behaviour, controlled and independent. Domestic and dramatic play continued with other children. More protective over younger children. Shows definite sense of humour.
Children at the age of 5 learnt more to get along with family constantly around them. And are learning to get along with more people.
Speaks fluently, loves to be read too and told stories too. Defines concrete nouns by use. Enjoys jokes and riddles. Able to give full name and birthday.
At the age of 6 and 7 the Physical, Emotional, Intellectual and Social Development are:
Children at this age become increasingly co-ordinated in their physical activities and have lost their “puppy fat”. The sense of balance is that children can skip, jump off apparatus and learn how to ride a two-wheeled bicycle. Growth in height and weight will increase steadily.
Children at around this age ate at the end of the “pre-operational2 stage. Pre-operational means “pre-logical”. Young children at this age may make decisions based on what things are like rather than the logic of counting.
At this age a child begins to care about family more. But is also more withdrawn in a sense that the child has more friends to talk to know so they don’t need the support of the family as much.
For a 6-7 year old the social development is that they have made relationships with other children, and become more independent. Children use a verity of ways to expand their Social circle some of these are: Exploring, Practising. Pretending and social learning. This is all to do with Social Development of the child’s the future. Most children by the age of 7 have developed the same sex friendship groups. Children may often prefer being with friends rather than doing activities.
The Social, Intellectual, Emotional and Physical Development for children between the ages of 8 and 9 are:
Milk teeth are replaced by permanent teeth and the jaws grow rapidly, facial features take on their permanent characteristics. Physical growth continues, muscles build and co-ordination is now much more musical instruments.
Children of this age can often only understand logical problems if they can see what is involved. This period is called ‘concrete operational period’ because older children can only work out logical problems if they can see ‘ concrete’ examples to help them.
At this age a child becomes more caring towards their friends. And becomes more realistic to the world around them. They develop new skills to care about each friendship they have and become close to their friends.
By this age friendship groups often share similar attitudes and values, Friendship groups start to have an influence on children’s belief and behaviour during childhood.
Physical characteristics of adolesce
By ‘adolescence’ we mean the age range 13-18 years. (18 years is the age when people are first allowed to vote and by implication, take on adult roles and responsibilities). Anytime from 9 years old and onwards a girls breasts start to enlarge. This happens well before menstruation and is usually the first sign of puberty is starting. In both sexes hair starts to grow in the pubic area and under the armpits (and on the chest in boys), and there is a rapid growth spurt in an individual is overall growth.