Information must be received and understood by the person or group to whom it was sent. Communication can take place between managers and employees, as well as between representative bodies, such as trade unions. Information is also passed on to people and organizations outside the company.
For communications to be effective the correct message must be sent and received. Messages can be sent for a number of reasons.
* To provide information about the company.
* To give instructions.
* To persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviour.
Information can be communicated in a variety of ways or through different communication media. These vary from written methods, such as annual reports, to oral methods such as telephone. Here is a list of the different types of communication a business might use.
The letter is a flexible method which provides a written record. It is often use for communications with others around the organisation. It can be used internally where a confidential written record is needed.
A Memorandum is the same as a letter but it is only used internally. It is sent via the internal mail system. Memorandums are useful for many sorts of messages. Sometimes they are used instead of telephone. Some businesses send memo’s via electronic mail. This allows a person to send a message to another persons computer. The memo can then be called up and read by the person who received it.
Reports allow a large number of people to see complex facts about issues an which they have to make a decision. A written report does not allow discussion or immediate feedback and it can be time consuming and expensive to produce. However it does have some advantages for passing messages to large groups. Firstly people can study the material in their own time. Secondly, time that is often wasted in meetings can be better used. And thirdly the report is presented in a impartial way.
Routine information can be communicated through the use of forms. A well designed form can be filled in quickly and easily. They are simple to file and information is quickly retrieved and confirmed.
The notice board is a method which cheaply passes information onto a large number of people. Te drawbacks to notice boards are that they can get untidy or irrelevant. In addition it relies on people reading them which does not always happen.
Larger companies often print an internal newspaper or magazine to inform employees about a number of things. These may include staff appointments, meetings and social events.
Face to Face Communications
Face to face communication involves an oral message being passed between people talking to each other. Face to face communications has several advantages, it: allows new ideas to be generated, allows on the spot feedback, constructive criticism and an exchange of views, encourages co-operation, allows information to be spread quickly among people. However it can also have problems if: the terms of reference are not clear, the people attending are unskilled or unwilling to communicate, there is insufficient guidance or leadership to control the meeting, body language creates a barrier.
Oral communication can take place other than a face to face situation in a business.
The telephone is a common method of oral communication between individuals in remote locations or even within the same premises. It provides some of the interactive advantages of face to face communication, while saving the time involved in travelling form one place to another.
Sometimes the messages can be communicated through a public address system. This might operate through loudspeakers placed in strategic points.
Rapid developments in technology have greatly changed the way businesses communicate with each other. It is now possible to send and receive messages instantly over great distances and to a number of people at the same time.
Many companies and individuals now have mobile phones. This allows people to send and receive phone calls from anywhere. They are particularly useful for employees who work outside the office or factory and who move around. Urgent messages can be sent and received immediately.
Answer phones record messages when the receiver is unable to answer the telephone. They allow important messages to be stored. They also allow messages to be sent from one company or person to another outside normal office hours. Some people do find answer phones impersonal and so might not leave a message.
These are devices which are useful for people who work outside of business and move around a lot. They may also be used in places where mobile phones are prohibited e.g. hospitals. A beeper alerts the receiver that a message is waiting for them.
Videoconferencing and teleconferencing
Videoconferencing is a method of communication which allows individuals in different locations to interact as if they were in the same room. Individuals can see each other on monitors with the use of cameras and talk to each other via telephone lines. This is particularly useful when employees need face to face interaction but work in locations that are distant form each other. It also saves time. Teleconferencing is where many people are linked via telephone lines. Each person can talk to each other as if they were in the same room.
Businesses are making more use of electronic notice boards. These communicate the latest information to employees via visual display units located in public places around the business. Their advantage over local notice boards is that they can be kept up to date. The main disadvantage is that they are limited to particular location in the business and the information may not be relevant to everyone who sees it.
Many businesses now have a e-mail address. They allow businesses and individuals to communicate immediately with others via word processed text or images. Information sent form one e-mail address to another address is stored by the srever- a computer dedicated to storage and network facilities. It stays in there until it is picked up by the receiver. The advantages of e-mail is that it is fast, cheap and large documents can be sent instantly to anywhere in the world.
Faxes are similar to e-mail but the information is already on paper in the form of text or pictures. This information is read by a fax machine, converted into audio signals and sent down a telephone line to another fax machine. The machine then reconverts the signals back into text. The advantages of fax are that it can be sent immediately and that the receiver does not have to be there. A disadvantage compared to e-mail is that it can take a long time to process a large document via fax. The information also has to be printed out before it can be sent.
Why certain types of communication are used in certain circumstances
* You get urgent order and you use fax why? For the speed and always you need a copy to prove details that it as been order or in case for mistake.
* When to notify staff for Christmas holidays you use the staff notice board why? Is because they don’t have to repeat it if someone is away or sick, keep it there for weeks until that person comes back.
* Need to get instant feedback on what any course it is.
Warburtons communication between departments
Warburtons use a wide variety of communication techniques to communicate between departments. If Warburtons want to achieve there mission statement good communication is essential. Warburtons use letters, memorandums, e-mail, telephones, and fax to communicate internally and externally. Warburtons employees are all trained correctly by the human resource department to use all the methods of communication correctly. These helps cut down on any barriers, which may occur. The new forms of communication that have recently been developed e.g. e-mail, intranet, and the internet have allowed Warburtons to communicate efficiently, and this in turn has allowed Warburtons to become a better organized company. This will result in an increase in sales and more importantly for Warburtons, higher profits, which were one of Warburtons main aims. The way Warburtons communicates will also allow them to reach many of their other aims. Here are all the departments, which occur in the Warburtons company and also how they communicate with one another:
The marketing department gives them a good sense of the market place, the customer’s needs and requirements, their main competitors and the goods available. They aim to produce new goods, promote them by different advertising methods such as billboards, TV etc. Marketing also promotes current products through advertising as well. Whenever you see a warburtons advert it is due to the marketing department The marketing department will also use a variety of methods to communicate internally and externally, such as the telephone, letters and even face to face meetings, but they will usually use some form of visual communication when advertising a product. When the marketing department needs to communicate externally e.g. with other departments it will use methods like telephone, fax and the Warburtons intranet.
This department is in charge and involved in developing and improving their products, which they sell, whether it aims to improve ingredients of an existing product or create a new one. It could mean that they are improving the ingredients or packaging or even creating a new product. When they are considering improving an existing product they will look at complaints received from customers, which they will receive from communicating with the customer service department. When the product development department communicates internally with one another it will be oral so they can discuss their ideas in a group and get instant feedback. When communicating with the customers and other departments (externally) it will use telephones, email, fax and probably the Intranet.
Van Sale Driver
This involves delivering orders from the factory where the product is baked to the supermarket shelves and independent stores like cash and carries. This is the crucial part of the working team. If it fails the company will lose their money and a load of bread will go to waste. The van department or van drivers communicate with Warburtons through oral and visual communication so they can clearly receive instructions on where to deliver the bread too. When they are traveling for example delivering the bread it will be able to communicate with using mobile phones, pagers etc.
This team involves selling their products to the supermarket e.g.) ASDA, Safeway, Tesco etc, and making sure that they close the deal. Also they have to make sure that the bread is on the supermarket shelves on time. This again is a crucial job because they are the ones who sell the bread. They have to promise the supermarkets that the bread will arrive at their supermarket on time and in perfect condition. The sales development team will communicate when selling the products to customers like ASDA by oral and visual communication because that how business sales are done. It may also communicate with the supermarkets by using reports, videoconferencing, and electronic notice boards. When communicating with the other departments in the War Burtons Company it will use oral communication, telephones, faxes and also the Intranet.
This involves dealing with their customers on a daily basis. This could involve answering telephone calls, which is the most common one, replying to letters or emails. These don’t just deal with complaints from customers the customer care unit also deals with question, queries and of course complaints. The method of communication in which warburtons customer service will use is telephones for most of the time when communicating with the public. It will also receive complaints for fax machines, e-mail and letters they will probably reply to the customer who are complaining in that way too. When they are communicating internally they will use telephones, fax, email and the intranet to communicate with other departments.
Human Resource Officer
This part of the company is involved in dealing with the Warburtons employees. The department is involved in interviewing new workers, disciplinary procedures if the employees have done something wrong, advisory management, law issues etc. if the employees are treated correctly than everybody will be working in a nice pleasant environment. The human resource department will use nearly every form of communication available from employment forms to the company intranet. If the Human resource department is advertising a job it will use the papers, Internet, job centre etc. The human resource department is there so Warburtons know they have a good work force and that they are happy. IF they need to communicate internally it will use methods of communication such as telephone, oral, visual, Internet, intranet and fax machines.
This department involves sorting out and organizing the operation and distribution of bread. Warburtons has the largest fleet of delivery vehicles in the country. They involve ensuring that there product arrives at the shop on time and in good sellable condition suitable for selling the product. If the operations team fails then the team will lose customers and more importantly money. When communicating it will do most of it’s communicating face to face. But if it needs to communicate with other departments it will use telephones, intranet and email. Probably the same methods if it was to communicate externally.